苦橙(Bitter orange,Citrus×aurantium)

芸香科(Rutaceae)柑橘属(Citrus)

学名:Citrus×aurantium

中文名:苦橙╱橙花、玳玳花

香柠檬(bergamot)是苦橙其中一亚种(Citrus aurantium subsp.bergamia)#3。

【生理活性】

苦橙富含的辛弗林素(p-synephrine)是常见的减肥成分,在果皮未成熟时含量最高#4。它也存在多种黄酮类,包含橙皮素(hesperetin)、柚皮素(naringenin)、芹菜素(apigenin)、木犀草素(luteolin)和香叶木素(diosmetin)#5以及其糖苷相关物#6。

另外还有分子结构为含氧三萜类的柠檬苦素和其糖苷衍生物,果肉主要含水溶性无味的柠檬苦素-葡萄糖苷分子#7,例如柠檬苦素葡萄糖苷(limonin glucoside)、诺米林葡萄糖苷(nomilin glucoside)、黄柏酮葡萄糖苷(obacunone glucoside)、诺米林酸葡萄糖苷(nomilinic acid glucoside),果皮和种子则是非水溶性苦味的柠檬苦素,例如柠檬苦素(limonin)、诺米林(nomilin)、黄柏酮(obacunone)、宜昌橙苦素(ichangin)和去乙酸诺米林(deacetyl nomilin)#8-9。

根据Zarrad的研究#1,突尼西亚苦橙果皮精油主要成分有柠烯(limonene,85.52%)、芳樟醇(linalool,3.37%)和β-香叶烯(β-myrcene,1.63%),另一研究显示果皮精油含有94.81%的柠烯#10。苦橙叶精油则以芳樟醇(26.3-64.1%)、乙酸芳樟酯(linalyl acetate,12.4-54.6%)和α-松油醇(α-terpineol,7.1-11.7%)为最主要成分#11。橙花精油可能包含柠烯(22.4%)、β-蒎烯(β-pinene,8.7%)和橙花醇(nerol,7.0%)#12。橙花精油(neroli)昂贵,有时会以便宜的苦橙叶精油(petitgrain)掺混#3。

民俗疗法

传统中医使用未成熟苦橙或果皮改善消化不良、腹泻、痢疾、便秘和化痰。在南美洲,苦橙用于失眠、焦虑或癫痫的治疗;叶片可当泻药、镇静剂;果皮能缓和胃痛、高血压。欧洲的巴斯克人利用苦橙叶治胃痛、失眠和心悸,且视苦橙皮为抗痉挛药。#13-14

抗氧化

橙花甲醇萃取物含高浓度多酚和黄酮类物质,含量比酒精和水萃取物高,且抗氧化力也较高,根据分析有没食子酸(gallic acid)、连苯三酚(pyrogallol)、丁香酸(syringic acid)、咖啡因酸(caffeic acid)、芸香甘(rutin)、槲皮素(quercetin)和柚皮苷(naringin)等成分#15。从干燥未成熟苦橙萃取出的多糖混合物,经检测具有不输维他命C的优异抗氧化力和自由基消除能力#16。

2013年一篇阿尔及利亚的研究#17,作者收集当地7种柑橘类水果检测果皮和叶子萃取物的总多酚浓度和抗氧化力,结果苦橙叶和果皮的表现最佳,优于血橙、甜橙和其它柑橘。另有研究使用榨汁后苦橙检测抗氧化力,结果显示果皮抗氧化力优于果肉#18。

抗菌

苦橙叶精油能抑制细菌、真菌和酵母菌的生长,实验显示浓度2.7 mg/mL时能抑制枯草杆菌(Bacillus subtilis),4.8 mg/mL可抑制金黄色葡萄球菌,抑制啤酒酵母菌(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)和拉曼毛霉菌(Mucor ramannianus)则需稍高浓度#19。其它研究描述,100%苦橙皮精油能在5分钟内完全杀死白色念珠菌、大肠杆菌和粪肠球菌#20。

抗焦虑、镇静

小鼠实验显示,焦虑时口服5 mg/kg或连续14天口服10 mg/kg的苦橙皮精油能有效降低短期或长期焦虑#8,还有研究使用小鼠喂食1.0 g/kg(←量很大)的苦橙皮精油持续15天也有类似结果#21。将进行手术的60位患者所参与的临床实验表示,麻醉前2小时口服1 mL/kg的橙花蒸馏物(芳樟醇浓度:0.01 mg.mL-1)可有效减少术前焦虑#9。

传统中医使用栀子花果实、厚朴树皮和苦橙果(1:7:1,w/w)煎煮液治疗忧郁#22,Xing研究此药方在大鼠的表现效果#23,发现每日口服3.66 g/kg剂量(原药材干重)持续3周即能有效改善大鼠焦虑。

降血糖、抗糖尿病

小鼠口服苦橙来源的新橙皮苷(neohesperidin)(50 mg/kg)持续6周,能有效改善糖尿病病征,包含血糖、血中糖化蛋白质、血脂、胰岛素敏感性(Insulin Sensitivity)、胰岛素抗性(Insulin resistance)、脂肪肝和肝功能指数,全朝正向发展#24。

α-淀粉酵素(α-amylase)可分解淀粉形成葡萄糖,可能造成血糖浓度上升,抑制α-淀粉酵素的活性有助于稳定血糖。根据体外实验#25,苦橙中含有的橙皮苷成分能明显抑制α-淀粉酵素活性。

减重

辛弗林素的分子结构类似肾上腺素,根据2012年一篇系统性回顾文献#26,多篇研究证明苦橙有减重功效,苦橙萃取物或辛弗林素能有效增加能量消耗和基础代谢率,持续使用12周以上可帮助减重。

抗癌

在癌细胞实验#15,橙花甲醇萃取物于浓度25μg/mL时有杀死肝癌(Chang liver)、乳癌(MCF-7、MDA-MB 231)和大肠癌(HT-29)细胞的功效,浓度增加到200μg/mL时有显著效果。

抗发炎

老鼠巨噬细胞实验发现#15,橙花甲醇萃取物可抑制因发炎物质诱发的一氧化氮生成反应,有效减少发炎现象,100µg/mL浓度下能降低约60%。栽种于韩国的苦橙,其黄酮类成分能抑制大鼠骨骼肌细胞的发炎反应#27,黄酮类成分透过抑制NF-κB和MAPKs讯息传递路径,减少发炎因子的形成。

减少肠胃溃疡

大鼠研究证明#28,苦橙皮精油和主成分柠烯可促进胃黏膜产生,保护肠胃,减少酒精或非类固醇抗发炎药对肠胃的伤害。除了柠烯是主要发挥功效的成分,β-香叶烯同样有保护效果#29。

可能风险

16位健康志愿者每日给予辛弗林素49 mg持续15天未发现有任何不适症状#30。根据大鼠实验#22,苦橙能帮助大鼠减重,可是也伴随心血管毒性,在2012年,一篇系统性回顾多项苦橙和减重相关试验的文献结论表示#26,正常剂量下,现有证据不足以证明苦橙萃取物、辛弗林素或辛弗林素-咖啡因复合物对人体会产生心血管相关或其它健康风险。2017年另一篇刊载于植物治疗研究期刊(Phytotherapy Research)的相同专题回顾#13,最后总结说明,在安全范围内食用苦橙萃取物或辛弗林素对人体不会造成伤害(80公斤成人吃97.3mg辛弗林素都还在安全范围内)。

2014年卫服部建议有高血压、心血管疾病及孕妇都不应食用含有苦橙成份的产品,目前成人食用苦橙的每日建议剂量为5-20毫克,一天不可摄取超过30毫克,且服用特定药物(例如:抗凝血剂、抗忧郁药等)时,都应避免并服苦橙#31。

【芳疗功效】

大鼠吸闻1-5%苦橙皮精油持续7分钟能有效降低焦虑,实验后大鼠在焦虑实验模型中探索时间和次数明显上升#32。

橙花精油在小鼠身上表现出镇静功效#33,实验组的小鼠仅有对照组34.73%的活动力。另一沙鼠(gerbils)吸嗅橙花精油的研究,在强迫游泳实验模型中,持续吸嗅精油的沙鼠游泳时间显著增加,较久才出现放弃反应,依照实验设计意义,越晚放弃,焦虑感越低#34。其实橙花精油常用于舒缓焦虑,只不过它属于高价精油,所以研究不多#3。

64位更年期妇女随机分组,实验组每日2次吸闻0.1或0.5%橙花精油5分钟持续5天,经量表评量可缓解更年期症候群,并有降血压、增加性欲、改善脉搏率和血液皮质醇(cortisol)、雌激素浓度等功效#35。

40位高血压新兵参与的临床试验#12,使用含有真正薰衣草(Lavandula angustifolia)、依兰依兰(Cananga odorata)、甜马郁兰(Origanum majorana)和橙花(Citrus aurantium)的复方精油[20:15:10:2],实验组每周2次吸闻复方精油2分钟并在2周实验期间全程戴精油链,结果发现吸闻治疗可降低血压和脉搏,精油链治疗有使收缩压和24小时动态血压(24-h ambulatory blood pressures)下降的疗效。

2008年一项使用胡椒薄荷和橙花纯露舒缓乳癌患者潮热(hot flushes)的研究#36,结果44位患者中只有18位觉得纯露优于自来水,但有少数人认为纯露极有帮助。

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作者:cofactor412