野姜花(Ginger lily,Hedychium coronarium)

姜科(Zingiberaceae)姜花属(Hedychium)

英文名:Hedychium coronarium、Hedychium coronarium J.Koenig、white butterfly ginger lily、garland flower、cinnamon jasmine#1

中文名:野姜花

野姜花似白蝶飞舞翩翩,甜香慢漫,原生于尼泊尔和印度的喜马拉雅山区,花期仅约一天,有些变种可开黄花,多繁殖于热带或亚热带地区,例如日本、印度、古巴、夏威夷、巴西、中国南方和东南亚国家,北美和欧洲国家在春季时也可能见到#4-7。

【生理活性】

生长于浙江杭州在春夏采摘的野姜花,精油-乙酸乙酯再萃物的主要组成有β-反式罗勒烯酮(β-transocimenone,28.05%)、芳樟醇(linalool,18.52%)、1,8-桉叶油醇(1,8-cineole,11.35%)、α-松油醇(α-terpineol,7.11%)、10-表-γ-桉叶醇(10-epi-γ-eudesmol,6.06%)、香桧烯(sabinene,4.59%)和品烯四醇(terpinen-4-ol,3.17%),大部分是单萜和倍半萜类#4。另篇使用印度冬日采摘野姜花的研究,精油主要有β-反式罗勒烯((E)-β-Ocimene,64.5%)、芳樟醇(20.3%)和1,8-桉叶油醇(3.6%)#8。

日本野姜花的庚烷萃取-蒸馏精油有不同的检测结果,含有茉莉酸甲酯(methyl jasmonate,17.16%)、香芹酚(carvacrol,7.5%)和丁香酚(eugenol,3.0%)等分子#9,还有一篇同样来自日本的研究也分析出类似成分#10。

在根(rhizome)、茎、叶部分,β‐蒎烯(β‐pinene,38.8-44.1%)皆有类似浓度,根部含有较高浓度的1,8-桉叶油醇(32.2%>5.1-5.6%),茎和叶则有较多的β-石竹烯(β-Caryophyllene,12.4-13.4%>0.1%)#8。另篇检测根部精油的主成分为1,8-桉叶油醇(37.44-41.42%)、β‐蒎烯(10.39-17.4%)和α-松油醇(6.7-8.8%)#11。

民俗疗法

中药─土羌活是野姜花的根部,传统用在头痛、糖尿病、挫伤发炎和风湿痛的治疗;印度阿育吠陀(Ayurvedic)疗法认为花可退热、使兴奋、抗风湿或作为补品;波斯-阿拉伯传统尤那尼(Unani)医学则用野姜花于消化系统和局部发炎的治疗,也能帮助舒缓呕吐和恶心感。#4-5,12-14。

印度中央邦内阿马尔卡恩塔克城(Amarkantak)所制造的自然发酵或干燥野姜花蒸馏水萃液(gulbakawali ark)是世界闻名的护眼补品,当地术士建议每次1-2滴每日2次持续使用一年,据称可预防白内障或治疗其他眼睛疾病,因此吸引各国观光客接踵而至购买,而更令人惊讶的是印度不少眼科权威都使用此水萃液成功治疗病患#5,15。不过野姜花已被放入印度红皮书,属于濒临灭绝物种,因栖地破坏、连根拔除或未成熟的采摘、市场对水萃液需求骤增等因素而使数量锐减#16。

抗氧化

野姜花精油-乙酸乙酯再萃物经检测可表现出消除自由基能力#4,但效果远弱于抗氧化剂BHT(butylated hydroxytoluene)和维他命C,另在2价铁离子的还原力试验也是同样弱势。

抗菌

野姜花水萃物具有抑制链隔孢菌属(Alternaria)、镰孢菌属(Fusarium)和黄麴霉菌(Aspergillus flavus)等真菌生长的能力,其中以链隔孢菌属效果最佳,甚至优于常用药耐斯菌素(Nystatin)和灰霉素(Greseofulvin)#15。

抗发炎

大鼠在诱使肿胀发炎前30分钟口服1毫升(浓度100 mg/kg)乳化后的野姜花精油-乙酸乙酯再萃物可有效抑制肿胀#4,发挥抗发炎功效,总计5小时的观察时间,消炎能力和常用药吲哚美辛(Indomethacin)相近。

护肝

由野姜花80%丙酮-乙酸乙酯萃取物所纯化出的成分,coronar ir in C和15-hydroxylabda-8(17),11,13-trien-16,15-olide,经体外研究证实可显著保护因D-半乳糖胺(D-galactosamine)诱发肝毒性的小鼠肝细胞,其效果和水飞蓟素(silybin)相比更为优异,表现突出的原因可能是纯化出的成分中仅此2化合物都含有氢氧-丁烯酸内酯官能基的缘故#17。

图2:coronar ir in C和15-hydroxylabda-8(17),11,13-trien-16,15-olide#17

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作者:cofactor412