迷迭香(Rosemary,Rosmarinus Officinalis)

品种分类

唇形科(Lamiaceae)迷迭香属(Rosmarinus)

学名:Rosmarinus Officinalis

中文名:原生迷迭香、直立迷迭香

其它品种:

迷迭香品种多样,依生长方式主要可分为直立性和匍匐性。开的花也不一样,例如albus品种开白花;Collingwood Ingram和Creeping是深蓝色;Majorca Pink的花呈粉红色;Officinalis和Tuscan Blue花色则有蓝有紫。#2

【生理活性】

抗氧化

许多疾病发生的起因都来自于氧化压力,例如糖尿病和癌症#3-4。迷迭香精油的酚二萜烯类成分(phenolic diterpenes)如鼠尾草酸(carnosic acid)、鼠尾草酚(carnosol)和迷迭香酸(rosmarinic acid)都是很强的抗氧化成分#5-7。实验显示迷迭香精油或萃取物可预防或破坏自由基,获得抗氧化效果#8-9,并避免油脂的过氧化反应#10-11。迷迭香除了可减少体内活性氧物质(reactive oxygen species),也发现能增加抗氧化酵素的活性#12。实际上,迷迭香的抗氧化活性可能是发挥其它生理活性的基础#10。

抗菌

迷迭香证明能抑制大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)、李斯特菌(Listeria monocytogenes)和金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)等微生物的生长#13-15。除了这些,迷迭香的抗菌力还不仅如此,有篇研究指出迷迭香可藉由减少或克服细菌细胞膜的阻隔性(impermeability),抑制某些具抗药性的超级细菌生长#14,也有研究指迷迭香精油可降低有些细菌的抗药性#15。迷迭香优异的抗细菌力也常使用在食物抗菌上#10,13,16-17,甚至在一些情况可取代人造防腐剂的添加#17-18。

迷迭香能抗细菌,也可抗真菌。迷迭香精油利用破坏真菌细胞结构和改变细胞膜穿透性等方式避免白色念珠菌(Candida albicans)的感染#19,即便是高抗药性的念珠菌也可见显著效果#20。

抗癌

在人类癌细胞株的研究,鼠尾草酸、鼠尾草酚和迷迭香酸这些成分可触发癌细胞的凋亡#4,21-23,其中鼠尾草酸看起来是效果最好的成分#4,23。迷迭香萃取物同样有抗癌潜力,一项小鼠实验显示,萃取物可避免致癌物和表皮细胞DNA键结#24。

抗糖尿病

在一项包含血糖正常、高血糖和糖尿病兔子的研究,迷迭香萃取物可降低血糖、抑制脂肪过氧化、活化抗氧化酵素以及促进胰岛素分泌#3。另一研究发现,迷迭香能缓和因糖尿病导致的伤口愈合龟速,加速愈合#25。正常和有糖尿病的大鼠,每日口服迷迭香萃取物具有降血糖和降血脂功效#26。

抗忧郁

在小鼠身上发现有抗忧郁效果#27-31,迷迭香可促进脑内多巴胺、血清素、正肾上腺素和胆碱相关功能的表现,这或许便是迷迭香为何能抗忧郁的原因#27-29。一般认为在迷迭香精油或萃取物中发挥抗忧郁效果的成分有鼠尾草酚、桦木酸(betulinic acid)、熊果酸(ursolic acid)和多酚类#27,29-30。

保护神经

乙醯胆碱酯酵素(Acetylcholine-Cholinesterase、AChE)和丁醯胆碱酯酵素(Butyryl Cholinesterase、BChE)这两种酵素会降解大脑的神经传导物质(乙醯胆碱),乙醯胆碱浓度过低可能导致失智,迷迭香能抑制这两种酵素活性,延缓乙醯胆碱降解速度,改善失智症状,其中发挥功效的活性成分可能来自于迷迭香酸和萜烯类(terpene)化合物#32-33。增加胆碱浓度除了可改善失智,也能减少记忆流失、焦虑和忧郁情绪#34-35。

有两篇研究和迷迭香保护神经的功效相关,一篇指出迷迭香的多酚成分能抑制神经退化性疾病有关的热休克蛋白质#36,另一篇作者总结迷迭香可促进神经生长因子的合成,增加神经生长因子能改善失智或其它神经退化性病症#37。

抗发炎

组织发炎时,白血球会迁移至发炎位置,实验显示迷迭香精油和萃取物都会限制白血球的迁移,达到抗发炎效果#38-40。迷迭香萃取物也能抑制某些促进发炎的物质,例如:一氧化氮和发炎相关基因#39-41。事实上,根据实验,纯鼠尾草酸和鼠尾草酚成分,抗发炎效果比常见的抗发炎药物,Indomethacin,还要优异9倍#39。迷迭香的酒水萃取物和精油可缓解大鼠的肠道发炎#42。

抗肥胖

研究指出鼠尾草酸能抑制脂肪生成#43。迷迭香萃取物可限制肠道内脂肪的吸收,这可能是透过抑制胰脂肪酵素所产生的结果#44(胰脂肪酵素帮助消化脂肪)。另外,迷迭香萃取物也可能藉由抑制二醯基油脂醯基转移酵素(diacylglycerol acyltransferase,负责合成三酸甘油酯),阻止脂肪合成#45。

其它

有研究指迷迭香粉末能改善公鸡因年老导致的生育力下降#46。灌食过迷迭香精油的大鼠,再注射肝损伤剂24小时后解剖,发现肝损伤程度减少,且抗氧化酵素活性比未服用迷迭香的大鼠高,表示迷迭香精油可能有潜在护肝功效#47。在民俗疗法可能使用在烧烫伤、头皮湿疹或刺激生发#10。

【芳疗功效】

一项包含79名青少年参与的实验结果#48,吸入迷迭香和薰衣草精油可显著增加短期图像记忆,换记忆数字时,迷迭香表现出类似结果,但薰衣草反而造成记忆衰退,这可能和薰衣草香气让人放松(sedative)#49,迷迭香总使人亢奋(stimulant)相关#50。在28位平均75岁的年长者研究显示,每天口服750毫克迷迭香粉末对记忆有帮助,若吃6000毫克则有负面影响#51。小鼠在吸嗅过迷迭香精油后,能有效消除疲惫,恢复活力#52。人的吸嗅迷迭香精油临床试验结果发现,吸闻后有舒缓焦虑、降低痛觉的功效#1,53。

【料理应用】

牛肉在高温油烹调时加入迷迭香,研究显示除了增加风味,还可抑制油耗味(醛类分子),会另外产生甜果香(酯类分子)和花香(酯类、醇类),但梅纳反应(Maillard reaction)产生的分子则变少,也就是肉味(呋喃类)、烧烤香气(硫醇类)会比未加迷迭香时淡#54。抗氧化物使用在高温食品料理上,通常预期都会抑制梅纳反应和油脂氧化#55。由于迷迭香的抗氧化特性,它已被使用在多种肉品的保存和品质提升,除了牛肉#56-57,还有猪肉#58-62和鸡肉#63-68,得到抗氧化、抑菌和稳定油脂等效果。

不过是不是只要使用有抗氧化特性的植物都能产生相同结果呢?那也不见得,一篇丹麦的研究表示#69在保存猪肉饼期间,分别添加迷迭香、奥勒冈和大蒜精油,结果显示12天过后,迷迭香和奥勒冈精油能减少蛋白质(硫醇基团)氧化,但大蒜精油反而增加氧化,比不添加还惨。作者认为可能是大蒜所含分子diallyl trisulfide,在富含铁离子环境下还原会产生高浓度自由基,也可能是大蒜因有大量含硫成分,所以易和蛋白质的硫醇反应造成氧化,Nagy的研究#70便说明大蒜素(allicin)会和硫醇反应。

迷迭香也使用在动物的饲养上,实验显示羔羊(lamb)吃含有迷迭香的饲料,制成的肉排能保存更久,且更能有效改善肉品存放期间油脂氧化、外观褐化、油耗味和微生物生长等衰败现象#71,另一研究喂食猪只含维他命E的饲料也有类似结果#72。在小母牛的研究显示#73,喂食含有多酚类、丁香和迷迭香精油的饲料后,除了减少油脂氧化和颜色转变,还能增加肉的抗氧化力,且在烹调时更能锁住肉汁。

迷迭香除和多种肉类搭配料理,和豆类、奶油、蛋类、橄榄油、马铃薯、蒜头、柠檬、番茄、洋葱以及烧烤、炖煮和地中海料理搭配也很合适。

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