鼠尾草(Sage,Salvia officinalis)

唇形科(Lamiaceae)鼠尾草属(Salvia)

学名:Salvia officinalis

中文名:(普通)鼠尾草

【生理活性】

根据多项研究结果,鼠尾草精油成分包含冰片(borneol)、樟脑(camphor)、石竹烯(caryophyllene)、桉叶油醇(cineole)、榄烯(elemene)、蛇麻烯(humulene)、ledene、蒎烯(pinene)和侧柏酮(thujone)。鼠尾草酒精和水萃取物主要的黄酮类成分有迷迭香酸(rosmarinic acid)和木犀草素-7-O-葡萄糖苷(luteolin-7-glucoside)#1。若以不同萃取部分探讨,使用酒精萃取时,花部有最高比率的α-蒎烯和1,8-桉叶油醇;最高比率的芳樟醇(linalool)出现在茎部;其他多数成分,例如樟脑、柠烯(limonene)、崁烯(camphene)、α-蛇麻烯和侧柏酮等,在叶子占的比率最多#2。不过萃取物成分可能因品种、生长环境、萃取制程和储存方式等因素而产生极大差异#3,即便是同批成品,经分装后的成分也不见得一样。

民俗疗法

亚洲和拉丁美洲地区,民众使用鼠尾草治疗癫痫(seizure)、溃疡(ulcers)、痛风(gout)、风湿(rheumatism)、发炎、眩晕(dizziness)、颤抖(tremor)、麻痹(paralysis)、腹泻(diarrhea)和高血糖(hyperglycemia)。在欧洲,则会用来缓解消化不良(例如火烧心(heartburn)或胀气(bloating))、多汗、老年认知障碍、喉咙和皮肤的发炎等#1。德国草药委员会(German Commission E)认可鼠尾草外用能治疗喉咙和鼻发炎,内服可治疗消化不良和多汗,但怀孕期间不应吃鼠尾草精油或酒精萃取物#4。

抗氧化

大鼠喝含有鼠尾草的水能帮助肝细胞对抗氧化压力,且抗氧化酵素的活性明显提高,DNA的氧化损伤也有减少趋势#5-6。鼠尾草的抗氧化功效主要来自鼠尾草酚(carnosol)迷迭香酸和鼠尾草酸(carnosic acid)3成分的贡献#7。鼠尾草酚消除自由基能力和维他命E相当#8。迷迭香酸衍生物消除超氧化物能力是水溶性维他命E的15-20倍,迷迭香酸在患有糖尿病的大鼠实验中显示,有增加多种抗氧化酵素活性的能力#9。槲皮素(quercetin)和芸香苷(rutin)是能在鼠尾草发现的黄酮类成分,他们同样具有优异抗氧化力#10。

抗菌

鼠尾草精油和酒精萃取物有优秀的抑制细菌能力,研究证实,对蜡样芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)、巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus megaterium)、枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、粪肠球菌

(Enterococcus faecalis)李斯特菌(Listeria monocytogenes)和表皮葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus epidermidis)都有很高抑菌力#2,11-14。除了抑制细菌,对于真菌、病毒和寄生虫也有抑制效果#15-18。根据研究,可抑制灰葡萄孢菌(Botrytis cinerea)以及众多念珠菌属真菌#15,18。鼠尾草的抑菌力是由于有萜类和相关衍生物的关系,它们能抑制多种细菌和病毒#14,17。三萜类:齐墩果酸(oleanolic acid)和熊果酸还能抑制多种超级细菌的生长#1,1 9。

抗癌

众多使用细胞和动物模型的研究指出,鼠尾草具有抗癌潜力。曾研究过的细胞有乳癌、子宫颈癌、大肠癌、胰脏癌、喉癌、肺癌、皮肤癌和口腔癌等癌细胞,鼠尾草在这些细胞表现出可能的抗癌潜力#1。抗癌功效可能源于多种成分发挥的效果,研究发现石竹烯和α-蛇麻烯成分能抑制乳癌和大肠癌细胞生长#20。泪杉醇(Manool)可选择性杀死子宫颈癌细胞和胶质母细胞瘤(glioblastoma)#21。迷迭香酸则早有许多文献发表,除了在细胞实验能抑制多种癌细胞生长,小鼠模型中也发现有预防皮肤肿瘤形成的表现#22。另有其他试验显示鼠尾草能抑制突变#23-24、保护大鼠避免基因毒性#25以及减少DNA的氧化损伤#26。鼠尾草的抗突变功效归因于单萜类成分,包括樟脑、侧柏酮、柠烯和1,8-桉叶油醇等化合物#23,27-29。

抗发炎和止痛

发炎和疼痛感是组织损伤的主要征兆,而多篇研究显示鼠尾草有抗发炎和止痛的效果#30-38,例如在小鼠研究,鼠尾草酒水萃取物可明显降低化疗引起的神经病变性疼痛(neuropathic pain)#30。另外有研究表示,使用氯仿萃取的鼠尾草萃取物抗发炎效果最佳,反观甲醇萃取物的效果就不明显,鼠尾草精油更近似无效,其中指标性成分是熊果酸(ursolic acid),它的抗发炎效果是发炎治疗药indomethacin的2倍#39。鼠尾草的黄酮类和萜类(terpenes)也有抗发炎和止痛效果#10,33,36,39,这在Mansourabadi的小鼠研究得到证明#33,另外Osakabe研究描述外用迷迭香酸可抑制皮肤发炎#40。泪杉醇、鼠尾草酚和熊果酸这些萜类成分都有抗发炎潜力#34,36,39。

改善记忆和认知

在动物#41-43和临床试验,分别都有多篇文献支持鼠尾草萃取物可改善认知和记忆表现的论述。健康的成人临床试验指出,鼠尾草精油香气能帮助人记得未来的待办事项#44-45。鼠尾草酒精萃取物也有改善健康长者记忆和专注能力的功效#46。给轻度或中度阿兹海默症患者使用鼠尾草酒水萃取物持续4个月疗程,结果发现可改善认知功能#47。

降低血糖和血脂

鼠尾草萃取物在正常和糖尿病动物或临床试验都显示可降低血糖#48-52和血脂。在肥胖大鼠实验指出,鼠尾草萃取除了有降低三酸甘油脂、总胆固醇和坏胆固醇(low density lipoproteins)浓度的效果,还观察到体重下降和腹部脂肪减少等现象#53,且类似效果也复制在患有糖尿病的大鼠#50-51。而在健康成人、高血脂和糖尿病患者的临床试验,同样有相似结果,能有效改善高血脂,优化脂肪组成#48,54-56。

可能风险

多数临床试验显示,食用鼠尾草并不会发生严重的副作用#47,54,56。但若长期吃或短时间大剂量(约对应15公克以上叶子部位)食用鼠尾草精油或酒精萃取物就可能产生一些副作用,例如:呕吐、流口水、心跳加快、眩晕、热潮红、过敏、发青(cyanosis)或抽慉#57-59。鼠尾草精油剂量若超过0.5 g/kg易有促进痉挛(proconvul​​sant)特性#1,可能刺激癫痫患者发病。樟脑、侧柏酮和萜酮类(terpene ketones)成分潜在毒性较高,不宜和胎儿及新生儿接触,所以在怀孕和哺乳期间并不建议吃鼠尾草#57-60。鼠尾草茶在小鼠身上有促进肝损伤的现象#61,但在人身上未见到#54,56。

【芳疗功效】

根据研究,剖腹产妇女在术后吸入苦橙或鼠尾草精油5分钟可有效减少焦虑感#62。包含135位健康志愿者的临床研究指出,在记忆力测试前吸嗅鼠尾草精油5分钟所获得的结果明显较佳#63。有研究表示,鼠尾草茶可延缓大鼠体内大肠癌细胞的增生,并减少DNA伤害#64。另一关于6位健康中年妇女饮用鼠尾草茶(4公克干燥鼠尾草/300毫升沸水,泡5分钟,每日2次)的研究探讨,结果显示4周后可有效降低血脂、改善脂肪组成以及增加抗氧化酵素的活性,不过对血糖调控没有帮助#56。

【料理应用】

一篇喂食石鸡(Alectoris chukar)吃含有鼠尾草饲料的研究表示,鼠尾草可显著减少DNA损伤,且剂量越高,保护效果越好,而其它指标,例如油脂组成、抗氧化力或体重差异,和没吃鼠尾草的石鸡则没有明显不同#65。

根据研究,添加鼠尾草精油在猪肉和牛肉中,可减少油脂的过氧化,实验显示在料理前后都有相似程度的效果#66-67,也可减少鸡绞肉冷藏期间油脂的氧化程度#68。另一火鸡肉丸的研究,鼠尾草萃取物可减少肉丸的水活性和pH,并抑制大肠杆菌和其他细菌,延长保存时间,而若和维他命C类似物(Sodium isoascorbate)合并使用效果更佳#69。其它在牛绞肉#70、猪肝酱#71、鸡肉丸#72、熟牛肉丸#73、生鲜猪肉香肠#74和中式香肠#75等不同研究标的都有相似结果。

鼠尾草不适合生食,常使用在烤肉、炖煮汤类、海鲜或富含油脂的肉类料理,和巴西里、迷迭香和百里香等香草搭配会更有层次,在希腊、西班牙、地中海或义式料理都很常见到鼠尾草。

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