依兰依兰(Ylang-Ylang,Cananga odorata)

番荔枝科(Annonaceae)依兰属(Cananga)

学名:Cananga odorata

英文名:Ylang-Ylang、perfume tree

中文名:依兰依兰、香水树

依兰依兰鹅黄花瓣,香调清新却四溢,伴随些微柔和果香,似带甜香的茉莉。原生长于亚洲热带国家,分布菲律宾、马来西亚和印尼,或是印度洋海岛国家,如马达加斯加、葛摩(Comoro),由于看好他的经济价值,目前美国、中国、非洲和印度也有种植。#1-2

【生理活性】

依兰依兰花精油的成分包含芳樟醇(linalool,13.6%)、乙酸香叶酯(geranyl acetate,5.3%)、石竹烯(caryophyllene,1.7%)、对甲酚甲醚(p-cresyl ether,16.5%)、苯甲酸甲酯(methyl benzoate,8.7%)、乙酸苄酯(benzyl acetate,25.1%)和苯甲酸苄酯(benzyl benzoate,2.2%)等物质#3。也可能主要成分不同#4,例如:苯甲酸甲酯(34.00%)、对甲酚甲醚(19.82%)和苯甲酸苄酯(18.97%)。

花期在完全盛开时最适宜蒸馏成精油,因含有最多的酯类和总挥发性成分#5。酯类成分浓度越高精油等级越高,通常依此分成四个等级,蒸馏制程初期所收集的精油品质最佳#6。

民俗疗法

越南人使用依兰依兰治疗疟疾,在爪哇则使用干燥花#7。有报导称依兰依兰可降血压,新鲜花泥能治疗气喘#1-2。北马里亚纳群岛(Northern Mariana Islands)上的居民或医者利用花和树皮缓解胃痛和肺部疾病#8。印尼人将依兰依兰精油当作助性高潮和减少性焦虑的辅助良方#9。

印度洋岛民和印度居民相信外敷依兰依兰叶可止痒并改善头皮屑,在印度也将精油用于头痛、眼发炎和痛风的治疗,另应用树皮汤汁在风湿、生痰、溃疡和发烧等病征上#10-12。撒摩亚(Samoa)和东加(Tonga)岛国视树皮为泻药,有助舒缓便秘#1。

抗氧化

依兰依兰花精油仅有些微消除自由基表现#13-14,但有研究发现500µg/mL浓度时可有效抑制醛类物质氧化,而在其他抗氧化检测模型上,比起其他精油,表现也相对出色#15-16。

抗菌

O-Methylmoschatoline、鹅掌楸碱(liriodenine)和3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid是树皮含有的抗菌成分,200μg/disc浓度可显著抑制多种细菌,400μg/disc可抑制多种真菌,如黄麴霉菌、黑麴霉或白色念珠菌#17-18。

杀虫

花精油可杀死3种病媒蚊,分别在9.77%、8.82%和4.99%浓度时可消灭一半的埃及斑蚊(Aedes aegypti)、热带家蚊(Culex quinquefasciatus)和大劣按蚊(Anopheles dirus)#19。另在日本白蚁(Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe)的研究,花精油于2mg/filter浓度时,在第2和7日,可使18.0±5.8%和94.0±4.0%的白蚁致死#20。

抑制黑色素

近年发现依兰依兰花蕾(buds)甲醇萃取物可抑制黑色素形成且无细胞毒性,其中2成分canangaterpenes I和(3R,3aR,8aS)-3-isopropyl-8a-methyl-8-oxo-1,2,3,3a,6,7,8,8a-octahydroazulene-5-carbaldehyde的抑制效果远比熊果素好(IC 50=3.6𝜇M、2.5𝜇M<174𝜇M)#21。

调控糖尿病

醛糖还原酶(aldose reductase)可催化血液中葡萄糖生成山梨醇(sorbitol),但若生成路径异常活化便可能造成细胞内山梨醇持续堆积,导致糖尿病衍生多种慢性并发症,例如:神经病变、视网膜病变、肾病或白内障#22。从依兰依兰花蕾分离出的3种活性物canangaterpene I、(E)-[(1R,3R,5S,6S,8S)-6-hydroxy-1,3-dimethoxy-2-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-8-yl]methyl caffeate和canangafruticoside E,研究显示分别在浓度1.2、1.5和0.8𝜇M能抑制醛糖还原酶一半活性,有助于调控糖尿病,对照组的绿原酸则在0.7𝜇M时即有相同效果#23。

抗发炎

小鼠巨噬细胞发炎时会释放一氧化氮,虽然这是发炎时的防御机制,但过量释放可能造成正常细胞损伤,实验发现50𝜇g/mL的依兰依兰叶甲醇萃取物能明显抑制一氧化氮释放且细胞毒性低#24-25。

15-脂氧合酶-1(15-lipoxygenase-1)是参与人体发炎反应的酵素之一,可催化产生促炎性(proinflammatory)因子#26-27。依兰依兰精油在浓度0.5μg/mL时可有效抑制15-脂氧合酶,效果优于常用标准抑制剂-降二氢愈创木酸(Nordihydroguaiaretic acid),可是随浓度增加,抑制的效果下降,降二氢愈创木酸也有相似情形#28。

可能风险

持续60天喂食树根50%酒精萃取物1g/kg body weight剂量的公大鼠,发现附睪精虫活动力和精虫数皆明显下降,且精虫型态也明显异常,可能有精虫毒性#29。

大鼠急性口服和白兔急性皮肤试验的LD 50皆超过5 g/kg,显示高安全性。美国香料及萃取物制造协会(Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association,FEMA)将依兰依兰精油列为公认安全物质,美国FDA准予作为食品添加物使用#1,6。

依兰依兰精油的4大功效

【芳疗功效】

36位20-45岁女性自愿者参与的芳疗按摩试验#30,3滴/10mL调和依兰依兰按摩油施于背或脸部的每周一次60分钟疗程,结果证明可显著降低女性或妇女压力。观察心率(elevated pulse rate)、收缩压、舒张压和呼吸速率等生理压力指标,有依兰依兰调合油存在的按摩疗程,皆可有效且迅速减少压力,尤以疗程进行30分钟时感受最深。

29位平均21-22岁男性自愿者参与嗅闻依兰依兰花精油的试验,实验组处于总量3滴精油的密闭空间20分钟,结果显示依兰依兰花精油能明显降低血压和心率,有镇静和放松功效#3。

95位处于算术和白噪音压力下5分钟的自愿者#31,实验组吸闻2滴真薰衣草和依兰依兰复方精油(1:1),结果在压力过后10和30分钟,发现实验组的压力指数、交感神经活性、压力荷尔蒙浓度和血压均明显低于安慰剂和控制组,证明真薰衣草和依兰依兰的复方精油可有效排除压力。

40位介于19-48岁的自愿者参与试验,实验组使用1mL 20%(w/w)依兰依兰花调合油按摩下腹5分钟,完成后覆盖保鲜膜15分钟防止挥发,结果实验组血压、心率、自主神经系统(autonomous nervous system)和自评皆较为平静且放松,代表依兰依兰确能舒缓焦虑和沮丧#4。

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作者:cofactor412